Time Line



Time line of important events on the mountain.

Trwysglwyn Fawr mentioned in “Stent” of 1352 Domicile of  Tudor ap Ednyfed at an annual rent of £6/8/-. The area was called Mynydd Trwysglwyn. Which translates as "A thick grove of rough trees covered with a Lichen growth"

Robert Parys given Mynydd Trwysglwyn as a reward from the King for collecting taxes due from the people of Anglesey because of their support for Owain Glyndwr. The only asset was the farm of Cerrig Y bleddia. When Robert Parys died the estate passed to his wife.Then later by successive marriages to the Plas Newydd and Llys Dulas families. The area became known at Mynydd Parys

Medleys "Great Mineral Works" at Mynydd Parys investigations for the Mineral & Battery work on methods for producing materials from the waters of Parys Mountain.  Recorded by Sir John Wynn of Gwydir    
Sir John Wynn described that “ the result of boiling a great cauldron of the coloured waters from the mine was to produce alum copperas which had the effect of transmuting iron into copper.”
Time of the great Alchemist investigations and attempts to transmute base metals into gold or silver.

Crown monopoly of Gold and silver mining held by the battery works was relinquished. Gold and silver were often found in copper mines and so a disincentive to prospect for these metals had been removed. Private “ Adventures” began to look at potential sites for copper and lead mines.

Lewis Morris writer and mapmaker noted in his diaries that the mountain produced an “oakery earth” which was used in paint manufacture. No mention of copper extraction.

Cerrig Y bleddia farm (East side of mountain) owned by Sir Nicholas Bayly. (Plas Newydd) Parys farm ( West side) owned by William Lewis of Llys Dulas. Sir Nicholas Bayly  obtains 15 year lease (@£25 pa) to work Parys farm.  Sheep farming not copper mining.

Dr John Rutty gave an address to the Royal Society on the " Vitriolic liquors" flowing out of the mountain. They were said to be of benefit for curing ulcers, itches, internal haemorrhaging ,worms and diarrhoea and “ the gleats”

Lewis Morris records that there was some prospecting in Anglesey including Rhosmynach and Parys.
A Cornishman called James Thomas was said to have already mined some ore at Parys and sent it to Warrington for smelting.
In the same year the Steward of the Arch Deacon of Merionydd was also carrying out a careful search of the Parys Mountain area. It is reported that his horse stumbled and fell into the remains of some previous workings on the mountain.
One of the areas being investigated was that of Cerrig Y Bleiddia farm were a Scot called Alexander Fraser had began to look for ore for the Bayly family.
The Mona Mine manuscripts records that Bayly received £108 rent from his Agent Cartwright in October 1761  "to carry on Parys mountain copper mine"
A number of shafts were sunk in the area now known as Hen Waith.  
Copper was found but flooding was always a major problem.

Bayly had almost given up on mining for copper on his land. He entered into a lease arrangement with Charles Roe and Company from Macclesfield. They were given the right to mine for 21 years from October 1764 at the eastern end of Parys mountain.

The land at Cerrig y Bleddia was searched for a number of years. Copper was found but it was always in difficult to work in wet veins. One last exploration was started in February 1768 under the direction of a mining engineer called Jonathon Roose.

 2nd march 1768
"The Great discovery" A large quantity of ore was found by a miner called Rowland Puw. For his work he was given a bottle of Whiskey and a  rent free cottage for the rest of his life

Following the discovery it was suddenly realised that the mountain held a great deal of wealth in copper. It was no longer just a place for sheep grazing. The boundary line between the Cerrig Y Bleddia land belonging to Plas Newydd and Parys farm that belonging to Llys Dulus suddenly became important. Disputes between the landowners started and became fiercer. Legal challenges lead to local lawyer called Thomas Williams getting involved.

Thomas William's legal work led to the formation of the Parys Mine company in 1774. With Jonathan Roose as his technical expert. Over the next few years Williams' influence and skills grew Warehouses, offices, roasting kilns and smelters were set up on the mountain or in Amlwch Port.

The Greenfield copper works was built to make articles out of the refined copper from the smelters at Amlwch Port.

A new patent meant that only Thomas William’s could supply the copper bolts & sheathing used by the Navy to protect ships from attack by a wood eating sea worm
A contract for 25,000 bolts were week was obtained by Thomas Williams who was actually supply 40,000 per week. Copper sheathing was used on Nelson’s ship Victory at the battle of Trafalgar.

Thomas Williams gained management control of the Mona Copper mine.
His power and influence was so strong that other producers especially those in Cornwall were subservient to him. From 1785 almost all of the Cornish output of copper ore was also sold by Thomas Williams via a new company called the Cornish Metal company.

31 smelting furnaces with chimneys 41 foot high had been built at Amlwch Port to refine the ore.

The poor quality and lack of local supply of the coin meant that by 1786 Thomas William was considering producing his own coinage with which to pay his workers. The coin that was struck, first in 1787, was an elegant copper coin. 
The observe of the coin showed a Druid's head surrounded by a wreath of oak leaves and acorns. Thomas Williams lived at Plas LLanidan over looking the Menai Straits.  His home was close to the battle fields of the Romans and Druids in AD61 and AD76.  It is thought that this influenced the design of his coin.
The reverse of the coin showed  a  PMC design which stood for the Parys Mining Company. The design also had the words:- We promise to pay the bearer one penny On demand in London , Liverpool or Anglesea." This served as a reminder that the coins were "Trade tokens" and not official coins of the realm.

Thomas Williams had to get coal and other raw materials into Amlwch port and Copper out to his customers. He helped establish the Amlwch Shipping company in 1788
. He was responsible for getting an act of parliament in 1793 to widen the port.

Thomas Williams died. At about the same time the output and quality of ore from the great open cast declined.

Lord Uxbridge, who still owned Mona mine formed a new company with the Vivian family of Swansea. The Vivian family had a large stake in the copper ore smelting business in Swansea and also with ore production from their mines in Cornwall.
It was from Cornwall that the Vivians supplied James Treweek to be the next mine manager.

Treweek brought with him many experienced overseers who began to use deep shaft mining techniques like those used in Cornwall as opposed to the open cast techniques used in the previous century.

His methods were so successfully that by 1816 the mine output had risen to 6 times that of 1811. Many new shafts were built with names such as Tiddys, Beers, and Treeweek's.

The Cornish miners experienced in dealing with the pumping of water from mines and in 1819 the Pearl engine house was built to help keep the mine dry.

This engine was installed and commissioned on 27-30 March 1819 and is the oldest surviving example of a Cornish beam engine in Wales. It has been designated as a Scheduled Ancient Monument.

A carting monopoly lead to higher prices which in November 1825 resulted in John  Sanderson the Plas Newydd agent looking at the possibility of having a railway built from the mountain to the smelting works at the port Treweek estimated that it would cost around £3000 for such a railway, which it was said would pay for itself in 3 years.

It was February 1828 before further progress was made when Mr Charles Vignoles arrived to survey the route from the Mona mine to the smelting works.

A Direct line from the mountain to the port was proposed with branch line to Parys and Mona kilns and to the yards of the smelting houses. The railway would continue on to the quay and enable two vessels to be loaded or unloaded at a time. Vignoles estimate for the cost from mountain to port was £6350.  However the railway to the mine was never completed.

James Treweek died and Charles Dyer became the Mona mine manager

Work began on a passenger railway from Gaerwen to Amlwch Port. The mine owners now found it cheaper and more reliable to transport good to and from the mine via the railway. 
The use of ships from Amlwch port began to decline.

Thomas Fanning Evans takes over Mona mine.

John Taylor & Sons suspend operations at Parys mine.

Underground work at Mona Mine stopped. Use of the precipitation process above ground continued.

Mainly precipitation works in which the copper in the water on the mountain was precipitated using iron in pits.

Precipitation pits abandoned.  

Various Companies carry out underground exploration for copper ore.

Anglesey Mining Company PLC prove the existence of a poly metallic ore containing mainly Zinc.