Parys Underground Group / Grwp Tanddaearol Parys

Glossary of mining & processing terms used at Parys

ADIT - Horizontal tunnel driven for access or drainage.
ADVENTURERS - Individuals who funded mines an a cost book system hoping to make a quick profit.
AIR DOOR - Door fixed across a level to direct flow of air for ventilation.
ARCHING - Roof supports in a level built of stone, wood, concrete or iron.
ARGIA - The walls between the precipitation pits.
BACKFILL - Waste rock packed into a disused passage or stope.
BAL MAIDENS - (Cornish) woman working to break up ore prior to processing.
BALANCE BOB - A mechanism to allow pump rods to transmit motion underground. 
BALANCED INCLINE - Two parallel tracks where weight of full wagon descending pulled up empty wagon.
BATTERY WORKS - A place where copper or brass was hammered into articles.
BELL PIT - A shallow working dug from the surface usually following a vein of ore.
BLISTER COPPER-metallic copper recovered by smelting but before refining.
BLONDIN - Wire rope spanning a quarry on which a travelling pulley could lift and move loads.
BRATTICE -  Wooden frames down the centre of a tunnel covered with thick canvass for ventilation
BRIMSTONE - Flowers of sulphur a solid powdery form of sulphur.
BUDDLE - Trough or circular pit where ore was separated from waste.
CABAN - Recess cut into the rock underground for shelter.
CAPTAIN - An over ser or mine manager. Captain Treweek hd a number of assitant captains Mynydd Parys
CHAIN INCLINE - Device running on chain or wire rope instead of rails.
CHWIMSI - Welsh for whimsey. A horse power haulage device.
COPPER LADIE - woman working on parys mountain to break up ore prior to processing.
COST BOOK SYSTEM-
Every quarter profits are paid out leaving nothing in reserve for hard time.
CROSS CUT - Access tunnel driven to cut the lode.
CRUSHER - Machine with two revolving drums to crush ore.
CRYSTYN COCH - Red ochre while still in precipitation pits.
DEADS - Waste rock stacked in the roof or walls.
DRESSING - The process of separating ore from waste material or producing slates.
DRUMHOUSE - Structure supporting the drum of a balanced incline.
ENGINE SHAFT - Shaft fitted with pumping equipment.
FATHOM - Unit of measurement 6 ft.
FFLODIARD - Floodgate or sluice on precipitation pit.
FIRESETTING - Method of breaking up rock by heating with fire and then quenching it with water.
FLAT RODS - Iron or wooden rods transmitting motion from an engine to pumps.
FLOOR - Working level of a slate quarry.
GANGUE - Crystalline minerals found in a lode with ore.
GINGING - Stone lining to a shaft.
GILLWNG - to drop a kibble
HALVANERS - people who dug over waste to recover copper. 338 paid in wages for 1842.
HAMMER STONES - Large pebbles used to crush ore by bronze age people
HOPPER - Wooden storage bin holding rock thrown down from a stope.
INCLINE - Inclined underground level or surface track for access or haulage.
JUMPER - Long iron rod, pointed at each end, which was used to drill shot holes by hitting it against the rock face.
KIBBLE - Iron or wooden bucket for raising ore or water.
LAUNDER - Wooden trough for conveying water.
LEAT - Surface channel for conveying water.
LEVEL - Horizontal tunnel driven for access or drainage.
LODE - Fissure containing a deposit of ore.
LON GOPAR - The road from Mona mine to the port which was lined with waste ore.
MAGAZINE - Building in which explosives are stored.
MAUL STONES - Large pebbles used to crush ore by bronze age people
MILL - Surface building where ore was processed.
MINE CAPTAIN - The Manager who looked after the day to day running of the mine. 
MOCHYN - The iron weighted balancing trolley of a mass balanced incline.
MWN - Ore or mine
OCHRE - A copper / iron oxide used in the preparation of paints
OLD MAN - The old miners or their workings.
ORE - Material from which metal could be extracted by smelting.
PACK WALL - Waste rock stacked as a wall along side of level.
PELTON WHEEL - Small waterwheel with cups into which a jet of water was directed.
PILLAR - Area of rock left undisturbed to support the roof.
POWDER HOUSE - Explosive store.
PRECIPITATION PIT- Pit where iron is added to copper solution causing copper to precipitate.
PWLL HAERN - Precipitation pits.
QUARRY - Place where stone or slate was excavated
REGULUSs-metalic portion of material in smelter.Normally more than one metal
REVERBATORY FURNACE -flame does not come in direct contact with the ore.
RISE - Underground shaft driven upwards.
SCORIER BLOCK- A slag block often used for building.
SETT - Area of a mining lease
SHAFT - Vertical or slightly inclined entrance for access, haulage or pumping.
SHEAVE - Grooved pulley wheel.
SHOTHOLE - Small diameter hole drilled into rock for inserting gunpowder.
SLIDEWAY - Unrailed incline.
SPOIL - Area of waste rock.
STEM - A mIners shift traditionally 6 hours at the wrokplace.
STEMPLE - Wooden bar jammed between rock walls for climbing or supporting deads.
STOPE - Cavity created by removal or ore.
SUMP - Underground shaft driven downwards.
TRAMMER - Those who operated the trams at the mines. Generally teenagers.
TRIBUTERS  - Those workers who brought out the ore in return for a share of the profits.
TUT WORKERS - Set of men to drive tunnels or shafts paid per fathom of tunnel dug to develop the mine
TYNTRI - Handwind lass ( From English turntree)
VEIN - Fissure containing a deposit of ore.
VENTILATION DOOR - Door fixed across a level to direct flow of air for ventilation.
WHIM or WHIMSEY - Winding engine powered by horse, steam or water.
WINCH - Portable device for raising loads, either hand, steam or air powered.
WINZE - Underground shaft driven downwards.